In humans, the elucidation of the genetics underlying multifactorial diseases such as pre-eclampsia remains complex. Given the current day availability of genome-wide linkage- and expression data pools, we applied pathway-guided genome-wide meta-analysis guided by the premise that the functional network underlying these multifactorial syndromes is under selective genetic pressure. This approach drastically reduced the genomic region of interest, i.e. 2p13 linked with pre-eclampsia in Icelandic families, from 8 679 641 bp (region with linkage) to 45 264 bp (coding exons of prioritized genes) (0.83%). Mutation screening of the candidate genes (n = 13) rapidly reduced the minimal critical region and showed the INO80B gene, encoding a novel winged helix domain (pfam14465) and part of the chromatin-remodeling complex, to be linked to pre-eclampsia. The functional defect in placental cells involved a susceptibility allele-dependent loss-of-gene silencing due to increased INO80B RNA stability as a consequence of differential binding of miR-1324 to the susceptibility allele of rs34174194. This risk allele is located at position 1 in an absolutely conserved 7-mer (UUGUCUG) in the 3-UTR of INO80B immediately downstream of a variant Pumillio Recognition Element (UGUANAAG). These data support that pre-eclampsia genes affect a conserved fundamental mechanism that evolved as a consequence of hemochorial placentation. Functionally, this involves founder-dependent, placentally expressed paralogous genes that regulate an essential trophoblast differentiation pathway but act at different entry points.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.