AIM: To reach consensus among specialists from the Nordic countries on the present state-of-the-art in treatment of undescended testicles. METHODS: A group of specialists in testicular physiology, paediatric surgery/urology, endocrinology, andrology, pathology and anaesthesiology from all the Nordic countries met for two days. Before the meeting, reviews of the literature had been prepared by the participants. RECOMMENDATIONS: The group came to the following unanimous conclusions: (1) In general, hormonal treatment is not recommended, considering the poor immediate results and the possible long term adverse effects on spermatogenesis. Thus, surgery is to be preferred. (2) Orchiopexy should be done between 6 and 12 months of age, or upon diagnosis, if that occurs later. (3) Orchiopexy before age one year should only be done at centres with both paediatric surgeons/urologists and paediatric anaesthesiologists. (4) If a testis is found to be undescended at any age after 6 months, the patient should be referred for surgery--to paediatric rather than general surgeons/urologists if the boy is less than one year old or if he has bilateral or non-palpable testes, or if he has got relapse of cryptorchidism.