The human body is a powerful advertising tool that portrays changing messages according to social trends and expectations. Sport advertisements in particular offer many opportunities to study these changes. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in body image portrayal in printed sports magazine advertisements over the last two decades. We used a purpose-designed observation instrument (OSBI) to analyze 221 body images in sports magazine advertisements from 2008 to 2018. We then performed T-pattern analysis (TPA) to compare the 2 periods as TPA is a suitable technique for analyzing the motor activities. Our results showed that advertisements from both periods featured mostly young, muscular, athletic men wearing sports attire. Women appeared more frequently in 2018 and showed a more dynamic body attitude. Other changes detected for 2018 were a greater presence of sports idols, facial mood expressions, and technological devices. We consider that this research demonstrates a unique, new application of TPA since we did not focus on behaviors from a single time dimension, but on a continuous chain of body images portrayed in sports magazine advertisements. The OSBI observation instrument used to record details of body image sequences provided objective evidence to help answer our research question.
We gratefully acknowledge the support of INEFC (National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia); the support of a Spanish government subproject Integration ways between qualitative and quantitative data, multiple case development, and synthesis review as main axis for an innovative future in physical activity and sports research [PGC2018-098742-B-C31] (2019-2021) (Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovaci?n y Universidades / Agencia Estatal de Investigaci?n / Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional), that is part of the coordinated project New approach of research in physical activity and sport from mixed methods perspective (NARPAS_MM) [SPGC201800 ? 098742CV0] (2019?2021) and the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya Research Group, Research group and innovation in designs (GRID). Technology and multimedia and digital application to observational designs. [Grant number 2017 SGR 1405]. The authors of this study would like to thank dr. M. Teresa Anguera for her advice and support and the Lleida Institute for Biomedical Research dr. Pifarr? Foundation (IRBLLEIDA).
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.