Epidemiologic studies provide an insight into the etiology of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia, which indicates that repetitive immune stimulation and genetic factors play an important role. Here, the current understanding on the causes of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia are reviewed. Recent studies of the literature are discussed, and future population-based studies are proposed to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie these associations. Finally, the clinical implications of these data are outlined, and perspectives on clinical follow-up and counseling are provided.
This research was supported by grants from the Swedish Cancer Society , Stockholm County Council , the Karolinska Institutet Foundations , and the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health , National Cancer Institute .