Unfrozen Skewed Turbulence for Wind Loading on Structures

Etienne Cheynet*, Nicolò Daniotti, Jasna Bogunović Jakobsen, Jónas Snæbjörnsson, Jungao Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Featured Application: This manuscript deals with the generation of turbulence wind histories with spatio-temporal characteristics suitable for the calculation of skewed wind dynamic load on slender structures. Such simulations may become essential for the design of future long-span bridges and high-rise buildings. The results presented are considered valuable in the field of structural engineering, boundary layer meteorology and computational wind engineering. The paper introduces an algorithm to generate a three-variate four-dimensional wind turbulence field suited for yawed wind dynamic load simulation. At large yaw angles, a relaxation of Taylor’s hypothesis of frozen turbulence becomes relevant as well as the flow phase lag in the along-wind direction, which modulates the real and imaginary parts of the coherence. To capture such a general wind action on a structure, a modified spectral representation method is used where the coherence of turbulence is described as a complex-valued function. The one-point and two-point co-spectra are implemented in the simulation setup using a square-root-free Cholesky decomposition of the spectral matrix. The numerical procedure is illustrated based on turbulence characteristics derived from data collected during storm Aina (2017) on the Norwegian coast by three-dimensional sonic anemometers. During this event, a remarkable 3-hour stationary time series with a mean wind speed of 24 m s (Formula presented.) at a height of 49 m above ground was recorded. Since no computational grid is needed, the velocity fluctuations with representative spatio-temporal characteristics can be directly simulated on structural elements of slender structures. Such an algorithm may be essential for the design of super-long span bridges in coastal areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9537
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

Other keywords

  • bridge
  • synthetic turbulence generation
  • Taylor’s hypothesis
  • turbulence
  • yaw angle


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