Tourism in a remote Nordic region: Vat, internet, oil, English, distance, Hofstede, and Christianity

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2 Citations (Scopus)


What are the determinants of tourism when treated as exports in national accounts? Is tourism sensitive to value-added taxation, Internet access, oil, English, Christianity, and regional trade agreements? Impact of these factors on tourism are tested, as well as the potential effects of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions; these are Hofstede’s cultural dimensions of uncertainty, individualism, power distance, masculinity, and orientation. The relationship between variables in the time period of 2003–2016 is analysed in the current research. The research shows estimate for tourism in logarithms to capture the marginal effects of various factors on tourism. The current research also obtains and tests international values for these factors empirically. The research seeks to answer if these factors affect the willingness of foreign tourists to visit.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1709346
JournalCogent Social Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 29 Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Dr Helga Kristjánsdóttir did research at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2000–2004, gaining valuable research connections with European researchers when she participated in a research and training network funded by the European Commission, titled: “Analysis of International Capital Markets: Understanding Europe’s Role in the Global Economy”. Before obtaining her doctoral degree, Kristjánsdóttir formed research connections and understanding of the European system, when allocated in Belgium, while completing her master studies in economics in Leuven, Belgium. Prior to the stay in Belgium, Kristjánsdóttir also formed research connections in the US and gained a valuable understanding of the American economic system during the time she finished her 2-year MBA studies in Boston, in the USA. Dr Kristjánsdóttir has research cooperation with international researchers and has twice organized the Nordic International Trade Seminars (NOITS) teaming together with Nordic researchers. Dr Helga Kristjánsdóttir’s areas of interest are in the broad field of business and economics and include international trade & investment, and renewable energy, as well as the tourism industry and business organizations.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.

Other keywords

  • Value added tax
  • Tourism
  • Internet
  • Oil
  • Virðisaukaskattur
  • Ferðaþjónusta
  • Netið
  • Olía


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