Strengthening parenting among refugees in Europe (SPARE): initial feasibility in Iceland and Norway

Margrét Sigmarsdóttir, Anne Arnesen, Marion S. Forgatch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Several European countries have offered refuge to families forced to flee their homes because of violence, war, and other disasters. Stressful factors associated with displacement and relocation place families at risk for disrupted effective child-rearing practices and associated growth in problems for parents and their children. The need to promote healthy adjustment and prevent and ameliorate problems for refugee families is vital. The present study describes SPARE (Strengthening Parenting Among Refugees in Europe), a trauma-informed adaptation of the evidence-based parenting program Generation Parent Management Training Oregon Model (GenerationPMTO). SPARE integrates core parenting components in GenerationPMTO with skills designed to address families’ trauma experiences. A collaborative team of GenerationPMTO experts in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands have adapted this parent group intervention for Arabic-speaking (Middle Eastern) refugee families who have relocated in Europe. This report describes results from an acceptability and feasibility study based on the first two SPARE groups completed in Iceland and Norway. Overall, attendance was good, parents reported satisfaction with their experiences in the groups and said that the material addressed important family needs. Parents also indicated the need for more time to deepen their understanding, provide greater focus on age-specific needs, and in Norway in particular, more information about the child welfare system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-24
JournalNordic Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Editors of Nordic Psychology.

Other keywords

  • adaptation
  • evidence-based intervention
  • parenting
  • prevention
  • refugees


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