Spatial node distribution of the random waypoint mobility model with applications

Esa Hyytiä*, Pasi Lassila, Jorma Virtamo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

238 Citations (Scopus)


The random waypoint model (RWP) is one of the most widely used mobility models in performance analysis of ad hoc networks. We analyze the stationary spatial distribution of a node moving according to the RWP model in a given convex area. For this, we give an explicit expression, which is in the form of a one-dimensional integral giving the density up to a normalization constant. This result is also generalized to the case where the waypoints have a nonuniform distribution. As a special case, we study a modified RWP model, where the waypoints are on the perimeter. The analytical results are illustrated through numerical examples. Moreover, the analytical results are applied to study certain performance aspects of ad hoc networks, namely, connectivity and traffic load distribution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)680-693
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work has been partially funded by the Finnish Defence Forces Technical Research Center and by the Academy of Finland (grants no: 202204 and 74524). The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. Esa Hyytiä’s work was done while he was with the Helsinki University of Technology.

Other keywords

  • Ad hoc networking
  • Connectivity
  • Mobility modeling
  • Random waypoint model


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