Semisupervised self-learning for hyperspectral image classification

Inmaculada Dopido, Jun Li, Prashanth Reddy Marpu, Antonio Plaza, Jose M. Bioucas Dias, Jon Atli Benediktsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Citations (Scopus)


Remotely sensed hyperspectral imaging allows for the detailed analysis of the surface of the Earth using advanced imaging instruments which can produce high-dimensional images with hundreds of spectral bands. Supervised hyperspectral image classification is a difficult task due to the unbalance between the high dimensionality of the data and the limited availability of labeled training samples in real analysis scenarios. While the collection of labeled samples is generally difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, unlabeled samples can be generated in a much easier way. This observation has fostered the idea of adopting semisupervised learning techniques in hyperspectral image classification. The main assumption of such techniques is that the new (unlabeled) training samples can be obtained from a (limited) set of available labeled samples without significant effort/cost. In this paper, we develop a new approach for semisupervised learning which adapts available active learning methods (in which a trained expert actively selects unlabeled samples) to a self-learning framework in which the machine learning algorithm itself selects the most useful and informative unlabeled samples for classification purposes. In this way, the labels of the selected pixels are estimated by the classifier itself, with the advantage that no extra cost is required for labeling the selected pixels using this machine-machine framework when compared with traditional machine-human active learning. The proposed approach is illustrated with two different classifiers: multinomial logistic regression and a probabilistic pixelwise support vector machine. Our experimental results with real hyperspectral images collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer and the Reflective Optics Spectrographic Imaging System indicate that the use of self-learning represents an effective and promising strategy in the context of hyperspectral image classification.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6423895
Pages (from-to)4032-4044
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Other keywords

  • Hyperspectral image classification
  • multinomial logistic regression (MLR)
  • probabilistic support vector machine (SVM)
  • semisupervised self-learning


Dive into the research topics of 'Semisupervised self-learning for hyperspectral image classification'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this