Seismic vulnerability of Himalayan stone masonry: Regional perspectives

Dipendra Gautam, Rajesh Rupakhety, Rabindra Adhikari, Binay Charan Shrestha, Rewati Baruwal, Lalit Bhatt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Stone masonry is one of the most dominant construction forms in the Himalayan region. Stone masonry construction has been used for centuries in the Himalayan region and other regions around the world due to their availability, low construction cost, and easy availability of construction workers. However, their performance during historical earthquakes has not been satisfactory, and on many occasions, collapse of the entire building or some components has caused enormous losses in terms of lives and properties. This chapter presents an account on the typology of stone masonry construction in Nepal in regional scale and develops damageability functions based on the historical damage data. Taxonomical variations in stone masonry are presented in a regional scale together with typical damage scenarios. Some insights in reconstruction and retrofitting of stone masonry buildings after the Gorkha earthquake are presented. A correlation between building collapse and fatality is also developed considering the damage statistics of some past earthquakes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMasonry Construction in Active Seismic Regions
Number of pages36
ISBN (Electronic)9780128210871
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc.

Other keywords

  • Building collapse
  • Damageability function
  • Dry stone masonry
  • Earthquake resistant construction
  • Fatality
  • Mud mortar
  • Retrofitting
  • Seismic vulnerability
  • Stone masonry


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