Seismic Fragility of Aging Elevated Water Tank with Smooth Bars Considering Soil Structure Interaction

Hariram Rimal, Piyush Pradhan, Dipendra Gautam*, Rajesh Rupakhety

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The functionality of elevated water tanks is pivotal to assure after an earthquake as water supply is expected to be uninterrupted. Although elevated water tanks with deformed bars are widely studied, limited works exist for water tanks with smooth bars, although such tanks comprise a considerable fraction, even in the high seismic regions. To quantify the seismic vulnerability of aging elevated water tanks with smooth bars, we created analytical fragility functions for full, half, and empty reservoir conditions, considering fluid–structure and soil–structure interactions. The sum of findings reflects that soil flexibility and the amount of water present in the tank have a significant effect on overall seismic fragility, especially at higher damage states. The tanks are found to be most vulnerable when they are fully filled with water. The effect of soil flexibility is more pronounced at higher damage states. The difference between the fragility of flexible base and fixed base structures is found to increase with increasing ground motion intensity and it is the highest for the empty tank condition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Authors are grateful to Adely Engineering Consult, Lalit Bhatt, Govind Raj Bhatt, Pushkar Koirala, and Naresh Subedi for their supports at various points of this research. Rajesh Rupakhety acknowledges support from the University of Iceland Research Fund.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

Other keywords

  • elevated water tank
  • fluid structure interaction
  • fragility function
  • seismic vulnerability
  • smooth bar
  • soil structure interaction


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