Increasing protein demand has led to growing attention being given to the full utilization of proteins from side streams in industrial fish processing. In this study, proteins were recovered from three protein-rich side streams during Tra catfish (Pangasius hypophthalamus) processing (dark muscle; head-backbone; and abdominal cut-offs) by an optimized pH-shift process. Physicochemical characteristics of the resulting fish protein isolates (FPIs) were compared to industrial surimi from the same raw material batch. The pH had a significant influence on protein extraction, while extraction time and the ratio of the extraction solution to raw material had little effect on the protein and dry matter recoveries. Optimal protein extraction conditions were obtained at pH 12, a solvent to raw material ratio of 8, and an extraction duration of 150 min. The resulting FPI contained <10% of the fat and <15% of the ash of the raw material, while the FPI protein recovery was 83.0–88.9%, including a good amino acid profile. All FPIs had significantly higher protein content and lower lipid content than the surimi, indicating the high efficiency of using the pH-shift method to recover proteins from industrial Tra catfish side streams. The FPI made from abdominal cut-offs had high whiteness, increasing its potential for the development of a high-value product.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research is supported by The UNESCO GRÓ-Fisheries Training Programme in Iceland.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- amino acids
- dark muscle
- lipid removal
- protein isolate
- Tra catfish