Planck intermediate results: LV. Reliability and thermal properties of high-frequency sources in the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

Y. Akrami, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, M. Ballardini, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, N. Bartolo, S. Basak, K. Benabed, J. P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, P. Bielewicz, J. R. Bond, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, C. Burigana, E. Calabrese, P. Carvalho*, H. C. ChiangB. P. Crill, F. Cuttaia, A. De Rosa, G. De Zotti, J. Delabrouille, J. M. Delouis, E. Di Valentino, J. M. Diego, X. Dupac, S. Dusini, G. Efstathiou, F. Elsner, T. A. Enßlin, H. K. Eriksen, R. Fernandez-Cobos, F. Finelli, A. A. Fraisse, E. Franceschi, A. Frolov, S. Galeotta, K. Ganga, M. Gerbino, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, S. Gratton, A. Gruppuso, J. E. Gudmundsson, W. Handley, F. K. Hansen, D. Herranz, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, Z. Huang, W. C. Jones, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, J. Kim, T. S. Kisner, N. Krachmalnicoff, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, J. M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, M. Lattanzi, C. R. Lawrence, M. Le Jeune, F. Levrier, P. B. Lilje, V. Lindholm, M. López-Caniego*, Y. Z. Ma, J. F. Macías-Pérez, G. Maggio, N. Mandolesi, A. Marcos-Caballero, M. Maris, P. G. Martin, E. Martínez-González, S. Matarrese, N. Mauri, J. D. McEwen, M. Migliaccio, D. Molinari, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, P. Natoli, D. Paoletti, B. Partridge, F. Perrotta, V. Pettorino, F. Piacentini, G. Polenta, J. L. Puget, J. P. Rachen, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, A. Renzi, G. Rocha, G. Roudier, B. Ruiz-Granados, M. Savelainen, D. Scott, G. Sirri, L. D. Spencer, A. S. Suur-Uski, J. A. Tauber*, D. Tavagnacco, M. Tenti, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, T. Trombetti, J. Valiviita, B. Van Tent, P. Vielva, F. Villa, I. K. Wehus, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We describe an extension of the most recent version of the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS2), produced using a new multi-band Bayesian Extraction and Estimation Package (BeeP). BeeP assumes that the compact sources present in PCCS2 at 857 GHz have a dust-like spectral energy distribution (SED), which leads to emission at both lower and higher frequencies, and adjusts the parameters of the source and its SED to fit the emission observed in Planck's three highest frequency channels at 353, 545, and 857 GHz, as well as the IRIS map at 3000 GHz. In order to reduce confusion regarding diffuse cirrus emission, BeeP's data model includes a description of the background emission surrounding each source, and it adjusts the confidence in the source parameter extraction based on the statistical properties of the spatial distribution of the background emission. BeeP produces the following three new sets of parameters for each source: (a) fits to a modified blackbody (MBB) thermal emission model of the source; (b) SED-independent source flux densities at each frequency considered; and (c) fits to an MBB model of the background in which the source is embedded. BeeP also calculates, for each source, a reliability parameter, which takes into account confusion due to the surrounding cirrus. This parameter can be used to extract sub-samples of high-frequency sources with statistically well-understood properties. We define a high-reliability subset (BeeP/base), containing 26 083 sources (54.1% of the total PCCS2 catalogue), the majority of which have no information on reliability in the PCCS2. We describe the characteristics of this specific high-quality subset of PCCS2 and its validation against other data sets, specifically for: the sub-sample of PCCS2 located in low-cirrus areas; the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps; the Herschel GAMA15-field catalogue; and the temperature-and spectral-index-reconstructed dust maps obtained with Planck's Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination method. The results of the BeeP extension of PCCS2, which are made publicly available via the Planck Legacy Archive, will enable the study of the thermal properties of well-defined samples of compact Galactic and extragalactic dusty sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA99
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
★ Corresponding authors: P. Carvalho, e-mail:; M. López-Caniego, e-mail:; J. A. Tauber, e-mail: 1 Planck ( is a project of the European Space Agency (ESA) with instruments provided by two scientific consortia funded by ESA member states and led by Principal Investigators from France and Italy, telescope reflectors provided through a collaboration between ESA and a scientific consortium led and funded by Denmark, and additional contributions from NASA (USA).

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements. The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of: ESA; CNES and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA, and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); and ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found at We acknowledge support from the ESTEC Faculty Research Project Programme.

Publisher Copyright:
© ESO 2020.

Other keywords

  • Catalogs
  • Cosmology: observations
  • Submillimeter: general


Dive into the research topics of 'Planck intermediate results: LV. Reliability and thermal properties of high-frequency sources in the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this