Perfect fluids

Jan De Boer, Jelle Hartong, Niels A. Obers, Watse Sybesma, Stefan Vandoren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a systematic treatment of perfect fluids with translation and rotation symmetry, which is also applicable in the absence of any type of boost symmetry. It involves introducing a fluid variable, the kinetic mass density, which is needed to define the most general energy-momentum tensor for perfect fluids. Our analysis leads to corrections to the Euler equations for perfect fluids that might be observable in hydrodynamic fluid experiments. We also derive new expressions for the speed of sound in perfect fluids that reduce to the known perfect fluid models when boost symmetry is present. Our framework can also be adapted to (non-relativistic) scale invariant fluids with critical exponent z. We show that perfect fluids cannot have Schrödinger symmetry unless z = 2. For generic values of z there can be fluids with Lifshitz symmetry, and as a concrete example, we work out in detail the thermodynamics and fluid description of an ideal gas of Lifshitz particles and compute the speed of sound for the classical and quantum Lifshitz gases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number003
JournalSciPost Physics
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Alexander Abanov, Rembert Duine, Blaise Gout?raux, Sa?o Grozdanov, Kristan Jensen, Elias Kiritsis, Koenraad Schalm and Henk Stoof for useful discussions. The work of NO is supported in part by the project ?Towards a deeper understanding of black holes with nonrelativistic holography? of the Independent Research Fund Denmark (grant number DFF-6108-00340). All the authors thank Nordita for hospitality and support during the 2016 workshop ?Black Holes and Emergent Spacetime?. JH and NO gratefully acknowledge support from the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University at which some of the research for this paper was performed during the 2017 workshop ?Applied Newton-Cartan Geometry?. JH acknowledges hospitality of Niels Bohr Institute and NO acknowledges hospitality of University of Amsterdam and University of Utrecht during part of this work. This work was further supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) under the VICI grant 680-47-603, and the Delta-Institute for Theoretical Physics (D-ITP) that is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW).

Funding Information:
We thank Alexander Abanov, Rembert Duine, Blaise Goutéraux, Sašo Grozdanov, Kristan Jensen, Elias Kiritsis, Koenraad Schalm and Henk Stoof for useful discussions. The work of NO is supported in part by the project “Towards a deeper understanding of black holes with nonrelativistic holography” of the Independent Research Fund Denmark (grant number DFF-6108-00340). All the authors thank Nordita for hospitality and support during the 2016 workshop “Black Holes and Emergent Spacetime”. JH and NO gratefully acknowledge support from the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University at which some of the research for this paper was performed during the 2017 workshop “Applied Newton-Cartan Geometry”. JH acknowledges hospitality of Niels Bohr Institute and NO acknowledges hospitality of University of Amsterdam and University of Utrecht during part of this work. This work was further supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) under the VICI grant 680-47-603, and the Delta-Institute for Theoretical Physics (D-ITP) that is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW).

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright J. de Boer et al.

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