Outcomes of 3-year-old children with hearing loss and different types of additional disabilities

Linda Cupples*, Teresa Y.C. Ching, Kathryn Crowe, Mark Seeto, Greg Leigh, Laura Street, Julia Day, Vivienne Marnane, J. Thomson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


This research investigated the speech, language, and functional auditory outcomes of 119 3-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Outcomes were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Multiple regressions revealed that type of additional disability and level of maternal education were significant predictors of language outcomes. Poorer outcomes were achieved in a combined group of children with autism, cerebral palsy, and/or developmental delay (DD) (Group A), compared with children with vision or speech output impairments, syndromes not entailing DD, or medical disorders (Group B). Better outcomes were associated with higher levels of maternal education. The association between better language outcomes and earlier cochlear implant switch-on approached significance. Further regression analyses were conducted separately for children with different types of additional disabilities. Level of maternal education was the only significant predictor of outcomes for Group A children, whereas degree of hearing loss was the strongest predictor for children in Group B. The findings highlight the variable impact that different types of additional disabilities can have on language development in children with hearing loss.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-39
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author 2013.


Dive into the research topics of 'Outcomes of 3-year-old children with hearing loss and different types of additional disabilities'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this