Optimism, pessimism and "fighting spirit": A new approach to assessing expectancy and adaptation

Daniel Thor Olason*, Derek Roger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The present study describes the construction and validation of a new scale for measuring optimism, pessimism and "fighting spirit", entitled the Positive And Negative Expectancy Questionnaire (PANEQ). Principal axis factor analysis of an initial pool of items generated by a scenario study yielded three factors, labelled negative affect/pessimism, fighting spirit and positive affect/optimism, all of which showed high internal (coefficient alpha) and re-test reliability. The original factor analysis was subsequently replicated in a separate sample using confirmatory factor analysis, and a structural equation model for the relationship between PANEQ and three measures of health and well-being provided evidence for discriminate validity of the three scales.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)755-768
Number of pages14
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2001

Other keywords

  • Affect
  • Fighting spirit
  • Optimism
  • Pessimism
  • Well being


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimism, pessimism and "fighting spirit": A new approach to assessing expectancy and adaptation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this