Optimal grid-forming control of battery energy storage systems providing multiple services: Modeling and experimental validation

Francesco Gerini*, Yihui Zuo, Rahul Gupta, Antonio Zecchino, Zhao Yuan, Elena Vagnoni, Rachid Cherkaoui, Mario Paolone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This paper proposes and experimentally validates a joint control and scheduling framework for a grid-forming converter-interfaced Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) providing multiple services to the electrical grid. The framework is designed to dispatch the operation of a distribution feeder hosting heterogeneous prosumers according to a dispatch plan and to provide frequency containment reserve and voltage control as additional services. The framework consists of three phases. In the day-ahead scheduling phase, a robust optimization problem is solved to compute the optimal dispatch plan and frequency droop coefficient, accounting for the uncertainty of the aggregated prosumption. In the intra-day phase, a model predictive control algorithm is used to compute the power set-point for the BESS to achieve the tracking of the dispatch plan. Finally, in a real-time stage, the power set-point originated by the dispatch tracking is converted into a feasible frequency set-point for the grid forming converter by means of a convex optimization problem accounting for the capability curve of the power converter. The proposed framework is experimentally validated by using a grid-scale 720 kVA/560 kWh BESS connected to a 20 kV distribution feeder in the EPFL campus hosting stochastic prosumption and PV generation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108567
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Volume212
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is funded in part by the OSMOSE project and in part by the XFLEX HYDRO project. The OSMOSE project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 773406 . The XFLEX HYDRO project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 857832 .

Funding Information:
This work is funded in part by the OSMOSE project and in part by the XFLEX HYDRO project. The OSMOSE project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 773406. The XFLEX HYDRO project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 857832.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s)

Other keywords

  • Battery energy storage systems
  • Frequency containment reserve
  • Grid-forming converter
  • Optimal scheduling

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