Námsmat á yngsta stigi í skóla án aðgreiningar

Auður Lilja Harðardóttir, Jóhanna Karlsdóttir, Jóhanna Karlsdóttir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Stefnan um skóla án aðgreiningar (e. inclusive education) hefur fengið mikla umfjöllun á undanförnum árum og ríkir óvissa um hvernig skuli innleiða hana svo vel takist til. Lykilhugtök stefnunnar eru vönduð menntun allra, fullgild þátttaka, jafngild tækifæri og lýðræðisleg gildi. Misvísandi hugmyndir um stefnuna geta haft áhrif á viðhorf og skilning kennara. Brýn nauðsyn er þess vegna að skilgreina hugtakið og skapa því sameiginlegan þekkingarfræðilegan grundvöll innan skóla og utan. Greina má gjá (e. gap) í fræðunum þar sem ekki hefur tekist að samræma námsmat og skóla án aðgreiningar. Námsmat er yfirgripsmikið hugtak en einn megintilgangur þess er að leiðbeina nemendum og örva þá í námi, vera þeim hvatning og stuðla að námsvitund þeirra. Vandað námsmat getur aukið þátttöku allra nemenda og ábyrgð þeirra á eigin námi og haft jákvæð áhrif á vaxtarsjálf (e. growth mindset) þeirra. Greininni er ætlað að skapa umræður í skólasamfélaginu um hvernig efla má skilning á málefninu. Rannsóknin var viðtalsrannsókn og fór fram í fjórum grunnskólum í Kópavogi. Þátttakendur voru fimm grunnskólakennarar. Markmið hennar var að kanna hvernig námsmati umsjónarkennarar á yngsta stigi beita í skólum án aðgreiningar. Einnig voru stefnuskjöl sveitarfélagsins og grunnskóla þess greind. Niðurstöður benda til þess að kennarar hafi jákvæð viðhorf til menntastefnunnar en telji aftur á móti að aukið fjármagn þurfi til þess að auka skilvirkni hennar. Þátttakendur reyndust sýna góðan skilning á inntaki stefnunnar og kennsluhættir þeirra einkenndust af því að reyna að koma til móts við alla nemendur með fjölbreyttum kennsluaðferðum. Ósamræmi í starfsháttum þeirra innbyrðis kom þó fram, einkum með tilliti til þess hvar nemendur með sérþarfir voru staðsettir innan skóla og óvissa var um hver bæri ábyrgð á námi þeirra. Þátttakendur reyndust meðvitaðir um mikilvægi fjölbreytts námsmats og beittu hefðbundnu og óhefðbundnu mati jöfnum höndum. Greina mátti misskilning þegar tilgang leiðsagnarmats bar á góma varðandi hvernig slíkt mat birtist í framkvæmd og víðtæk áhrif þess á nám.
Inclusive education has been subject to controversial reviews over the last decade and is riddled with uncertainty as to how it should be implemented. Key concepts in inclusive education are quality education, full participation, equal opportunities and democratic values. In Iceland a common understanding of the policy is that all students have educational opportunities in their home school, regardless of physical, mental or social abilities or cultural origin. Contradictory definitions of the policy have, nonetheless, had an impact on teachers’ views and beliefs. This is in part because difficulties have arisen in translating the concept of inclusive education. Increased awareness has emerged for the shared understanding of the epistemology base behind the policy for all stakeholders, within and outside the schools themselves. When meeting the needs of all pupils, teachers are key agents in differentiated teaching and instructions. Studies have, however, indicated that assessment has not been efficiently linked to differentiated instruction and assessment in Iceland. Assessment is seen as a comprehensive concept and its main purpose is to guide and motivate students towards further learning, inspire and promote metacognition. The main purpose of assessment for learning is to evaluate students and use the information to have a positive effect on children’s learning. It focuses on the students’ abilities to further their own learning, by participating in both the process of learning and the assessment. This in turn, gives the child increased awareness of responsibility, eagerness to learn and fosters self-belief. Quality assessment can increase students’ participation in their own learning and have a positive effect on growth mindset. Individuals who view themselves from the perspective of a growth mindset, believe they have abilities to affect their learning process, by intuition and tenacity. Challenges are opportunities to learn from and grow and achievement is derived by working hard. With this in mind the challenge for teachers is to promote self-belief in all their students. This research focused on how teachers in early education use assessment in inclusive education. The research took place in one municipality in Iceland, namely, Kópavogur. Four interviews with five participants were taken. One interview included two teachers who work in team teaching. The study aimed at understanding what kind of assessment teachers use within diverse groups of pupils in inclusive education. Teachers’ understanding and views regarding the policy were explored, as well as gaining teachers’ understanding of assessment and how they implement it with their pupils. The municipality’s policy documents and school curriculum were reviewed and analyzed. The main findings of this research imply that teachers have a positive view towards inclusive education but believe increased funding is required to implement its policies. Participants showed a divergent but sound understanding of the inclusive policy and their teaching methods are characterized by trying to meet the needs of all by using differentiated instructions. However, an inconsistency was found in their view of where students with disabilities are placed within the schools and an uncertainty as to who is considered responsible for those students’ education. Participants were aware of the importance of using authentic assessment, both summative and formative assessment. Yet, there was an indication of misconceptions about the role of assessment for learning (i.e. formative assessment) and its widespread effect on students’ learning. Teachers are seen as the key agents in promoting inclusive education and meeting the needs of a diverse group of pupils. For that, a professional dialogue about education in general is needed within all schools which, in turn, promotes teachers’ professionalism and competences.
Original languageIcelandic
Pages (from-to)1-17
JournalNetla
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2020

Other keywords

  • Skóli án aðgreiningar
  • Námsmat
  • Leiðsagnarmat
  • Vaxtarsjálf

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