Jokulhlaups in Iceland: prediction, characteristics and simulation

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An empirical power-law relationship is obtained between peak discharge, Qmax, and total volume, Vt, of the jokulhlaups from Grimsvotn: Qmax=KVtb, where Qmax is measured in m3s-1, Vt in 106m3, K=4.15 × 10-3s-1m-2.52 and b=1.84. In general, the jokulhlaups (excepting those caused by eruptions) occur when the lake has risen to a critical level, but before a lake level required for simple flotation of the ice dam is reached. The difference between the hydrostatic water pressure maintained by the lake and the ice overburden pressure of the ice dam is of the order 2 to 6 bar. -from Author

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-106
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of Glaciology
Publication statusPublished - 1992


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