Inter- and intra-modal matching in very low birth weight and small for gestational age adolescents

Kari Anne Indredavik Evensen*, Hermundur Sigmundsson, Pål Romundstad, Marit S. Indredavik, Ann Mari Brubakk, Torstein Vik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Motor problems in low birth weight children may be related to problems in sensorimotor integration processes. Specific tests of inter- and intra-modal matching have not been used in low birth weight populations. Aim: Examine whether low birth weight adolescents have poorer performance in inter- and intra-modal matching than normal birth weight adolescents. Study design: A population based follow up study of very low birth weight and small for gestational age children at 14 years of age. Subjects: Fifty-three very low birth weight adolescents (VLBW: birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 59 term small for gestational age (SGA: birth weight < 10th centile) and 82 adolescents with birth weight ≥ 10th centile at term (reference group). Outcome measures: Inter- and intra-modal matching was assessed by a manual matching task and results were presented for the preferred and the non-preferred hand in the visual (inter-modal) and proprioceptive (intra-modal) condition. Results: VLBW adolescents performed poorer in inter- and intra-modal matching compared with the reference group. However, the results were mainly due to a higher number of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and a low estimated intelligence quotient (IQest) in the VLBW group. SGA adolescents showed poorer performance with their non-preferred hand compared with their preferred hand in both inter- and intra-modal matching, whereas adolescents in the reference group and VLBW adolescents with normal IQest and without CP performed equally well with both hands. Conclusion: VLBW adolescents with normal IQest and without CP do not have major problems in inter- and intra-modal matching. The poorer performance with the non-preferred hand in the SGA group may suggest a specific effect of intrauterine growth retardation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-27
Number of pages9
JournalEarly Human Development
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Part of the study population was recruited from a multicenter study sponsored by the US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH (NICHD contract No. 1-HD-4-2803 and No. 1-HD-1-3127), and was funded by Trondheim University Hospital; St. Olavs Hospital's Research Fund, and Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Other keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Inter- and intra-modal matching
  • Manual matching task
  • Small for Gestational Age
  • Very Low Birth Weight


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