Integration of SAR Data Into Monitoring of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Eruption, Iceland: Contribution of the Icelandic Volcanoes Supersite and the FutureVolc Projects

Stéphanie Dumont*, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Michelle M. Parks, Vincent J.P. Drouin, Gro B.M. Pedersen, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Ármann Höskuldsson, Andrew Hooper, Karsten Spaans, Marco Bagnardi, Magnús T. Gudmundsson, Sara Barsotti, Kristín Jónsdóttir, Thórdís Högnadóttir, Eyjólfur Magnússon, Ásta R. Hjartardóttir, Tobias Dürig, Cristian Rossi, Björn Oddsson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report how data from satellite and aerial synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations were integrated into monitoring of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the 1783–84 Laki eruption. A lava field formed in one of the most remote areas in Iceland, after the propagation of a ∼50 km-long dyke beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, where the Bárðarbunga caldera is located. Due to the 6 month duration of the eruption, mainly in wintertime, daily monitoring was particularly challenging. During the eruption, the European volcanological project FutureVolc was ongoing, allowing collaboration of many European experts on volcano monitoring activities. Icelandic volcanoes are also a permanent Supersite within the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative, with support from the Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) in the form of a large collection of SAR images. SAR data were acquired by Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellites and complemented by aerial SAR images. The large set of SAR satellite data significantly contributed to the daily monitoring during the unrest at Bárðarbunga caldera, the Holuhraun eruption and the year following the eruption. Detection of surface changes using both SAR amplitude and phase information was conducted throughout the whole duration of the volcano-tectonic event, and in the following months, to quantify and track the evolution of volcanic processes at Holuhraun and geothermal activity at Bárðarbunga volcano. Combination of SAR data with other data sets, e.g., satellite optical images and geodetic Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, was essential for the evaluation of the volcanic hazard in the whole area. International collaboration within the FutureVolc project formed the basis for successful analyses and interpretation of the large SAR data set. Information was provided at Scientific Advisory Board meetings of the Icelandic Civil Protection and used in decision-making, as well as for supporting field-deployment and air-based surveys.

Original languageEnglish
Article number231
JournalFrontiers in Earth Science
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work represents only one part of a much larger and collaborative effort of monitoring Holuhraun eruption and the unrest at B?r?arbunga during 6 months. We would like to thank all those that took part to this work in one way or another. We are grateful to the Icelandic Coast Guard who allowed safe flights over the caldera and the lava field as well as the acquisition of data. We thank the two reviewers and the editor Maurizio Battaglia, for their insightful reviews that improved the paper, M. Dirscherl for helping with the Figure 8 and Christian Minet for his collaboration and advice when dealing with TSX-TDX data. COSMO-SkyMed data were provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and TerraSAR-X data by the German Space Agency (DLR) through the Icelandic Volcanoes Supersite project supported by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). An intermediate TanDEM-X digital elevation model was provided by DLR under project IDEM_GEOL0123. Funding. Support for this work was received from the European Community?s Seventh Framework Program Grant No. 308377 (Project FUTUREVOLC), the Research Fund at the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Government through the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police. SD is currently supported by the FCT postdoctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/17714/2016), as part of POCH and the European Union.

Funding Information:
Support for this work was received from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program Grant No. 308377 (Project FUTUREVOLC), the Research Fund at the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Government through the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police. SD is currently supported by the FCT postdoctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/17714/2016), as part of POCH and the European Union.

Funding Information:
New generations of SAR satellite sensors have short repeat periods ranging from 1, 3, 4, 8, or 12 days for the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation and from 11 days for TerraSAR-X satellite allowing near real-time monitoring through the integration of SAR satellite data. Hence, SAR satellite images were integrated in the FutureVolc project as a key tool for tracking magma movement in the crust to complement ground-based monitoring networks (Parks et al., 2014). This approach was supported by the Icelandic Volcanoes Supersite, an initiative from the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), awarded in 2013. Recognizing the Icelandic volcanoes2 as a Permanent Supersite for Earth Sciences within the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative was important, and the two projects sharing a common objective: increase scientific understanding of magmatic processes to narrow down the uncertainty in hazard and risk assessment, both in line

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2018 Dumont, Sigmundsson, Parks, Drouin, Pedersen, Jónsdóttir, Höskuldsson, Hooper, Spaans, Bagnardi, Gudmundsson, Barsotti, Jónsdóttir, Högnadóttir, Magnússon, Hjartardóttir, Dürig, Rossi and Oddsson.

Other keywords

  • Bárðarbunga volcano
  • FutureVolc
  • Holuhraun eruption
  • Iceland
  • Icelandic Volcanoes Supersite
  • SAR data
  • volcano monitoring

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Integration of SAR Data Into Monitoring of the 2014–2015 Holuhraun Eruption, Iceland: Contribution of the Icelandic Volcanoes Supersite and the FutureVolc Projects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this