Implementation of sulfate adsorption in the SAFE model

T. Fumoto*, H. Sverdrup

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


An SO42- adsorption submodel has been implemented in the dynamic soil chemistry model SAFE. The submodel calculates pH-dependent SO42- and H+ adsorption to the soil, as well as the net surface charge development due to uneven adsorption of SO42- and H+, using the empirical equations derived from an electrostatic model (Extended Constant Capacitance Model, ECCM) of SO42- adsorption. The resulting new SAFE model was applied on a roof experiment plot in the Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.] stand at Solling, Germany, where atmospheric S and N deposition was artificially reduced by the roof construction. The model performance was compared with the previous versions that used a pH-independent Freudlich model of SO42- adsorption or assumed no SO42- adsorption. With the ECCM-based SO42- adsorption submodel, SAFE simulated soil solution SO42- concentration and base saturation better, in comparison with measured data, than with the previous SO42- adsorption formulations. Through the model application, also, need of additional improvement was suggested, such as calibration of mass transfer coefficients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-57
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2001


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