Immunological studies in the hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome

A. Haraldsson*, C. M.R. Weemaes, A. W. de Boer, J. A.J.M. Bakkeren, G. B.A. Stoelinga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Five patients with hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome (hyper-IgD syndrome) were followed up for 3 to 8 years. In all patients studied, serum IgG3 was high. IgM decreased during the follow-up in all patients. In four of the patients serum IgA was elevated. In four patients the serum IgD κ/λ ratio was measured and was found to be raised in all. However, the serum total light-chain ratio and IgG, IgA, and IgM κ/λ ratios separately were virtually normal. In two of the patients, clinical symptoms preceded the increase in serum IgD. All patients had a history of severe reactions on immunizations in early childhood. We conclude that in hyper-IgD syndrome, other immunoglobulins may also be affected, in particular, IgA, IgM, and IgG3. The IgD light-chain ratio is also disturbed. We emphasize that clinical symptoms may herald immunological changes. This may be the result of an underlying factor causing both the clinical symptoms and, later, the increasing serum IgD levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-428
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Immunology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1992

Other keywords

  • clinical symptoms
  • IgG
  • Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
  • light chains


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