Gene × Environment Interactions: From Molecular Mechanisms to Behavior

Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Elisabeth B. Binder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

97 Citations (Scopus)


Gene-by-environment interactions (G×Es) can provide important biological insights into psychiatric disorders and may consequently have direct clinical implications. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major challenges G×E studies have faced (e.g., difficulties replicating findings and high false discovery rates). In light of these challenges, this review focuses on describing examples in which we might begin to understand G×Es on the molecular, cellular, circuit, and behavioral level and link this interaction to altered risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. We also describe recent studies that utilize a polygenic approach to examine G×Es. Finally, we discuss how gaining a deeper understanding of G×Es may translate into a therapeutic practice with more targeted treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-241
Number of pages27
JournalAnnual Review of Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jan 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This review was supported by a European Research Council starting grant, GxE-MOLMECH grant 281338, to E.B

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2017 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Other keywords

  • Epigenetic
  • Gene-by-environment interactions
  • Genomics
  • Psychopathology
  • Stress
  • Trauma


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