Flow cytometric DNA index and s-phase fraction in breast cancer in relation to other prognostic variables and to clinical outcome

Mårten Fernö*, Bo Baldetorp, Åke Borg, Håkan Olsson, Helgi Sigurdsson, Dick Killander

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)


One frequently used classification of flow cytometric DNA ploidy status (diploid versus nondiploid) was compared with a division into seven ploidy classes based on DNA index (DI) and number of cell populations (hypodiploid, diploid, near-hyperdiploid, hyperdiploid, tetraploid, hypertetraploid, and multiploid). The latter ploidy classification showed a better correlation with prognosis and other prognostic factors (i.e., lymph node involvement, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and S-phase fraction). The improvement in correlation was mainly due to the identification of near-hyperdiploid cases (DI 1.00-1.14) which could be combined with the diploid cases to form a group with favourable prognosis. In contrast to cases with a small increase in DNA content (near-hyperdiploid), those with a small decrease of DNA content (hypodiploid) manifested a more aggressive disease. In multivariate analysis, S-phase fraction (SPF) was a more important prognostic factor than both the improved or the conventional ploidy classification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-165
Number of pages9
JournalActa Oncologica
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1992

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are grateful to the Southern Swedish Breast Cancer Group. We are also indebted to Ingrid Idvall for cytopathological examination of all imprints, to Ghita Fallenius-Vecchi, Ulla Johansson and Gunilla Sellberg for invaluable help with DNA and steroid receptor analyses, and to Eva Henriksson for preparation of the figures. This work was supported by grants from the Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Society of Medicine, the Swedish Cancer Society, the John and Augusta Persson’s Foundation for Medical Scientific Research and the Berta Kamprad Foundation.

Other keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • DNA-index
  • Flow cytometry
  • Interphase
  • Ploidy
  • Prognosis
  • Proliferation
  • S-phase


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