Fast EM-driven parameter tuning of microwave circuits with sparse sensitivity updates via principal directions

Anna Pietrenko-Dabrowska*, Slawomir Koziel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Numerical optimization has become more important than ever in the design of microwave components and systems, primarily as a consequence of increasing performance demands and growing complexity of the circuits. As the parameter tuning is more and more often executed using full-wave electromagnetic (EM) models, the CPU cost of the overall process tends to be excessive even for local optimization. Some ways of alleviating these issues exist, yet, they are limited either by their accessibility or applicability range. This work presents a novel algorithmic approach to accelerated gradient-based parameter tuning of microwave components with numerical derivatives. In our methodology, computational savings are achieved by exploiting the problem-specific knowledge, specifically, by restricting the gradient updates to an orthonormal basis of essential directions corresponding to the maximum variability of the circuit responses within the frequency bands of interest. The said directions are selected through an automated decision-making process involving the analysis of the circuit response variability. Our approach is demonstrated using two multi-parameter microwave devices. Comprehensive comparison with the benchmark methods, including the standard trust-region algorithm and the three accelerated versions, indicate savings of up to fifty percent associated only with minor reduction of the design quality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109388
JournalKnowledge-Based Systems
Publication statusPublished - 27 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank Dassault Systemes, France, for making CST Microwave Studio available. This work is partially supported by the Icelandic Centre for Research (RANNIS) Grant 206606 and by National Science Centre of Poland Grant 2018/31/B/ST7/02369 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.

Other keywords

  • Automated decision-making
  • Design optimization
  • Gradient-based search
  • Microwave design
  • Simulation-based optimization
  • Sparse sensitivity updates


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