Explicit Size-Reduction of Circularly Polarized Antennas through Constrained Optimization with Penalty Factor Adjustment

Marzieh Mahrokh*, Slawomir Koziel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Modern communication systems of high data capacity incorporate circular polarization (CP) as the preferred antenna radiation field configuration. In many applications, integration of the system circuitry with antennas imposes size limitations on CP radiators, which makes their development process a challenging endeavor. This can be mitigated by means of simulation-driven design, specifically, constrained numerical optimization. Majority of the performance-related constraints are expensive to evaluate, i.e. require full-wave electromagnetic (EM) analysis of the system. Their practical handling can be realized using a penalty function approach, where the primary objective (antenna size reduction) is complemented by contributions proportional to properly quantified constraint violations. The coefficients determining the contribution of the penalty terms are normally set up using designer's experience, which is unlikely to render their optimum values in terms of the achievable miniaturization rates as well as constraint satisfaction. This paper proposes a procedure for automated penalty factor adjustment in the course of the optimization process. Our methodology seeks for the most suitable coefficient levels based on the detected constraint violations and feasibility status of the design. It is validated using two CP antenna structures. The results demonstrate a possibility of a precise constraint control as well as superior miniaturization rates as compared to the manual penalty term setup.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132390-132396
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Icelandic Centre for Research (RANNIS) under Grant 217771, and in part by the National Science Centre of Poland under Grant 2017/27/B/ST7/00563.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

Other keywords

  • Circular polarization antennas
  • compact antennas
  • constrained optimization
  • penalty functions
  • simulation-driven design


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