Evaluation of Energy Security in Select Eastern European Countries

Erin Lawyer*, Ewa L. Carlson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


After the invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February 2022, energy security in the EU was put into question. Dependency on Russian fossil fuel imports resulted in difficulty implementing sanctions, along with volatile energy prices impacting the entire continent. Some of the most affected countries were those highly dependent on Russian energy, and geographically cut off from other sources. This article evaluates the state of energy security in selected Southeast and Eastern European countries with a lens on the aftermath of the invasion of Ukraine and future paths to reducing dependency on Russian energy imports via renewable energy sources. States analyzed include Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia. These countries were chosen due to their geographic location, dependency on Russian resources, and lack of previous literature evaluating and comparing energy security within. Evaluations of the energy situation in each nation were developed along with an index for comparison amongst each country and the EU plus other European regions based on 25 data metrics. Data collected include energy supply diversity, energy import/export ratio, price volatility in electricity and natural gas, renewable energy capacity, green hydrogen investment, future electricity and capacity installation needs, and cross-border transmission capability. Metrics were grouped into categories: energy imports and natural gas storage, cross-border connections, energy prices, the electricity sector, RES share in other sectors, National RES in energy targets, energy use, and funding/policy. To determine an overall index score for each country, each category was assigned a weight based on importance to energy security, determined by previous indices developed by the Global Energy Institute, the World Bank, and other literature.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 19th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 2023
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
ISBN (Electronic)9798350312584
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event19th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 2023 - Lappeenranta, Finland
Duration: 6 Jun 20238 Jun 2023

Publication series

NameInternational Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM
ISSN (Print)2165-4077
ISSN (Electronic)2165-4093


Conference19th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IEEE.

Other keywords

  • Energy dependency
  • Energy Security
  • Energy Security Index
  • South-Eastern Europe


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