Engineered bacterial biofloc formation enhancing phenol removal and cell tolerance

Xiao Jia, Shun Zhang, Jiawei Li, Juan Xia, Ruilian Yao, Xinqing Zhao, Bing Wu, Fengwu Bai, Yi Xiao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


A microbial floc consisting of a community of microbes embedded in extracellular polymeric substances matrix can provide microbial resistances to toxic chemicals and harsh environments. Phenol is a toxic environmental pollutant and a typical lignin-derived phenolic inhibitor. In this study, we genetically engineered Escherichia coli cells by expressions of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) to promote proteinaceous and aliphatic biofloc formation. Compared with the planktonic E. coli cells, the biofloc-forming cells improved phenol removal rate by up to 2.2-folds, due to their substantially improved tolerance (up to 149%) to phenol and slightly enhanced cellular activity (20%) of phenol hydroxylase (PheH). The engineered bioflocs also improved E. coli tolerance to other toxic compounds such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and guaiacol. Additionally, the strategy of the engineered biofloc formation was applicable to Pseudomonas putida and enhanced its tolerance to phenol. This study highlights a strategy to form engineered bioflocs for improved cell tolerance and removal of toxic compounds, enabling their universality of use in bioproduction and bioremediation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1187-1199
Number of pages13
JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Other keywords

  • Diguanylate cyclase
  • Engineered bioflocs
  • Enhanced tolerance
  • Guaiacol
  • Phenol removal


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