Consensus on technical procedures in radiology to include in simulation-based training for residents: a European-wide needs assessment

Leizl Joy Nayahangan*, Elisabeth Albrecht-Beste, Lars Konge, Boris Brkljačić, Carlo Catalano, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Katrine Riklund, Michael Bachmann Nielsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To identify and prioritize technical procedures for simulation-based training that should be part of the education of residents in radiology. Methods: This European-wide needs assessment study used a modified Delphi technique to gather consensus from different key education stakeholders in the field. The first round was a brainstorming phase to identify all procedures that a newly specialized radiologist should potentially be able to do. In the second round, each procedure was explored for the need for simulation training; the participants determined frequency, number of radiologists performing the procedure, impact on patient comfort and safety, and feasibility of simulation. The result of this round was sent back to the participants for final evaluation and prioritization. Results: Seventy-one key education stakeholders from 27 European countries agreed to participate and were actively involved in the Delphi process: response rates were 72% and 82% in the second and third round, respectively. From 831 suggested procedures in the first round, these were grouped and categorized into 34 procedures that were pre-prioritized in the second round according to the need for simulation-based training. In the third round, 8 procedures were eliminated resulting in final inclusion of 26 procedures. Ultrasound procedures were highly ranked including basic skills such as probe handling; abdominal ultrasound; and ultrasound of kidneys, retroperitoneum, intestines, and scrotum. Conclusion: The prioritized list of procedures represents a consensus document decided upon by educational stakeholders in radiology across Europe. These procedures are suitable for simulation and should be an integral part of the education of radiologists. Key Points: • The 26 identified procedures are listed according to priority and should be included as an integral part of simulation-based training curricula of radiologists across Europe. • This needs assessment is only the first step towards developing standardized simulation-based training programs that support the harmonization of education and training across Europe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-180
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, European Society of Radiology.

Other keywords

  • Curriculum
  • Delphi technique
  • Needs assessment
  • Radiology
  • Simulation training


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