Asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in association with home environment - The RHINE study

Juan Wang, Christer Janson, Andrei Malinovschi, Mathias Holm, Karl A. Franklin, Lars Modig, Ane Johannessen, Vivi Schlünssen, Þórarinn Gíslason, Nils Oskar Jogi, Dan Norbäck

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We studied home environment exposures in relation to asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis among offspring of participants (parents) in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) study (age ≤ 30 y). Totally 17,881 offspring from Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Estonia were included. Home environment exposures, including dampness and mold, type of dwelling, construction year and indoor painting were registered through a questionnaire answered by parents in the first follow up (RHINE II). The parents reported ten years later with in the frame of RHINE III offspring's birth year and offspring's asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis. They also reported dampness and mold at home from RHINE II to RHINE III. The prevalence of offspring's asthma before 10 y, asthma after 10 y, allergic rhinitis at any age and atopic dermatitis at any age were 9.7 %, 4.3 %, 15.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Asthma before 10 y was related to any indoor painting at RHINE II (OR = 1.14, 95%CI (1.02, 1.29)). Asthma after 10 y was associated with dampness/mold at home (OR = 1.33-1.62) and living in the newest buildings (constructed in 1986-2001) (OR = 1.30, 95%CI (1.02, 1.66)). Allergic rhinitis was associated with living in newer buildings (constructed in 1961-2001) (OR = 1.16-1.24). Atopic dermatitis was associated with visible mold (OR = 1.35, 95%CI(1.12, 1.62)), dampness/mold at home (OR = 1.18-1.38), living in apartments (OR = 1.22, 95%CI(1.10, 1.35)) and living in newer buildings (constructed in 1961-2001) (OR = 1.14-1.25). There were dose-response effects of dampness and mold on offspring's asthma after 10 y and atopic dermatitis (20 years exposure vs. 10 years exposure). Older offspring had increased risk of developing asthma after 10 y and atopic dermatitis. In conclusion, home dampness and mold, living in apartments, living in newer buildings and indoor painting were associated with offspring's asthma or allergic diseases. Stronger health effects were found among offspring with prolonged exposure of dampness/mold.

Original languageEnglish
Article number158609
Pages (from-to)158609
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Funding Information:
The work was supported by the Icelandic Research Council , the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation , the Vårdal Foundation for Health Care and Allergic Research , the Swedish Association Against Asthma and Allergy , the Swedish Council for Work Life and Social Research , the Swedish AFA Insurance (No. 467801100 ), the Bror Hjerpstedt Foundation , the Norwegian Research Council , the Norwegian Asthma and Allergy Association , the Danish Lung Association and the Estonian Science Foundation .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

Other keywords

  • Humans
  • Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology
  • Home Environment
  • Humidity
  • Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology
  • Asthma/epidemiology
  • Fungi
  • Europe
  • Risk Factors
  • Indoor painting
  • Home environment
  • Asthma
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Dampness


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