Air pollution awareness and risk perception in ger areas of Ulaanbaatar

Bonjun Koo, Seong Cheol Kang, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Ana Maria Cruz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Residents in the ger areas of Ulaanbaatar aggravate air pollution by heavily using coal for heating and cooking. Measures intended to reduce air pollution in the ger areas have often been unsuccessful because such measures did not reflect the awareness and preference of the residents. In the belief that a better understanding of the characteristics and thinking of people affected by air pollution could help develop more effective measures, this paper investigates awareness, risk perception, and willingness to change of the ger residents regarding air pollution issues through a questionnaire survey with hypothesis testing. The results show that the ger residents' level of awareness about air pollution is quite high. While they perceive that information on air quality is insufficient, they acknowledge risks of air pollution well. The ger residents also show support for strong measures to curb air pollution and willingness to take burdens such measures may bring to them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-261
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Environment and Pollution
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

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Other keywords

  • air pollution
  • air quality
  • awareness
  • ger areas
  • heating
  • Mongolia
  • risk perception
  • Ulaanbaatar
  • use of coal


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