Ageing, sex, and cardioprotection

Marisol Ruiz-Meana*, Kerstin Boengler, David Garcia-Dorado, Derek J. Hausenloy, Tuuli Kaambre, Georgios Kararigas, Cinzia Perrino, Rainer Schulz, Kirsti Ytrehus

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Translation of cardioprotective interventions aimed at reducing myocardial injury during ischaemia–reperfusion from experimental studies to clinical practice is an important yet unmet need in cardiovascular medicine. One particular challenge facing translation is the existence of demographic and clinical factors that influence the pathophysiology of ischaemia–reperfusion injury of the heart and the effects of treatments aimed at preventing it. Among these factors, age and sex are prominent and have a recognised role in the susceptibility and outcome of ischaemic heart disease. Remarkably, some of the most powerful cardioprotective strategies proven to be effective in young animals become ineffective during ageing. This article reviews the mechanisms and implications of the modulatory effects of ageing and sex on myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion injury and their potential effects on cardioprotective interventions. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on Risk factors, comorbidities, and comedications in cardioprotection. To view the other articles in this section visit

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5270-5286
Number of pages17
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

This article is based upon work from COST Action EU-CARDIOPROTECTION CA16225 supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). M.R.M. and D.G.D. are funded by ISCIII (PI19-01196), CIBER-CV, Fundaciό MTV3-122/C/2015, SEC-2016, and the European Regional Development Fundings (ERDF-FEDER); T.K. is funded by IUT23-1 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research; D.J.H. is supported by the British Heart Foundation (CS/14/3/31002), the National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, Duke-National University Singapore Medical School, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council under its Clinician Scientist-Senior Investigator scheme (NMRC/CSA-SI/0011/2017) and Collaborative Centre Grant scheme (NMRC/CGAug16C006), and the Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 2 (MOE2016-T2-2-021); R.S. is funded by the German Research Foundation (Project 268555672-SFI3-B05); K.B. is funded by the German Research Foundation (BO 2955/4-1); C.P. is funded by Ministero dell’Istruzione, Universitá e Ricerca Scientifica Grant (2015583WMX) and Programma STAR grant, financially supported by Federico II University and Compagnia di San Paolo. This work is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Dr. David García-Dorado, who sadly passed away during the final stage of the preparation of this manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The British Pharmacological Society

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