Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland

Sigridur Rosa Vidisdottir*, Svend Richter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with high accuracy both age and dental maturity in Icelandic children and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)518.e1-518.e7
JournalForensic Science International
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The present study was supported by the Research Fund of the University of Iceland and the Research Fund of the Icelandic Dental Association . Thanks are extended to Dr. Berglind Jóhannsdóttir for the use of her database and OPG's.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Other keywords

  • Age estimation
  • Dental development
  • Forensic anthropology population data
  • Iceland


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