Social inequality in students’ educational expectations, a strong predictor of educational attainment, differs substantially between countries. Although education system characteristics are translated into school composition effects, the school level is often forgotten in comparative research. Moreover, to explain school effects, we introduce the concept of student engagement into sociological research on expectations. Results of multilevel analyses (R) on data from 7566 students in 126 high schools in four cities—Barcelona (Spain), Ghent (Belgium), Bergen (Norway), and Reykjavík (Iceland)—demonstrated positive effects of (1) SES composition, but mainly in systems with substantial school segregation, (2) behavioral and emotional engagement on expectations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This article uses data from the International Study of City Youth (see iscy.org ). ISCY is an international collaborative project designed and implemented by various research partners from across the world, led by the Centre for International Research on Education Systems (CIRES) at Victoria University, Australia. ISCY has received funding from the Australian Research Council, the Victorian Department of Education and Training, and CIRES. We acknowledge the support and contribution made by all students, teachers, and schools participating in the project. The authors of this article also received additional funding. This project was funded by the Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture of Spain, entitled ‘Elecciones Educativas y Desigualdades Sociales en las Biografías Juveniles: Acceso a la Universidad, Itinerarios de Formación Profesional y Abandono del Sistema Educativo.’ (Reference: CSO2016-79945-P); the Research Foundation - Flanders with a personal grant awarded to Laura Van den Broeck (grant number FWO16/ASP/242); the Research Council of Norway, Program for Research and Innovation in the Educational Sector (project number: 212352); the Icelandic Research Fund (grant number 184730-051).
© The Author(s) 2022.
- cross-national research
- Educational expectations
- school effects research
- social inequality
- student engagement