A Population-Based Ultra-Widefield Digital Image Grading Study for Age-Related Macular Degeneration-Like Lesions at the Peripheral Retina

Imre Lengyel, Adrienne Csutak, Daniela Florea, Irene Leung, Alan C. Bird, Fridbert Jonasson, Tunde Peto*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose Our understanding of the relevance of peripheral retinal abnormalities to disease in general and in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in particular is limited by the lack of detailed peripheral imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to develop image grading protocols suited to ultra-widefield imaging (UWFI) in an aged population. Design A cross-sectional study of a random population sample in which UWFI was introduced at the 12-year review of the Reykjavik Eye Study in Iceland. Participants Five hundred seventy-six subjects 62 years of age or older. Methods Ultra-widefield (up to 200°) color and autofluorescence images were obtained using the Optos P200CAF laser scanning ophthalmoscope (Optos plc, Dunfermline, Scotland). The images were graded at Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre primarily based on the International Classification for AMD. Macular and peripheral changes were graded using a standardized grid developed for this imaging method. Main Outcome Measures Presence or absence of hard, crystalline, and soft drusen; retinal pigment epithelial changes; choroidal neovascularization (CNV); atrophy; and hypoautofluorescence and hyperautofluorescence were graded in the peripheral retina. Results Of the eyes examined, 81.1% had AMD-like changes in the macula alone (13.6%), periphery alone (10.1%), and both periphery and macula (57.4%). There was no AMD-like CNV or pigment epithelial detachment in the periphery except in those cases in which these clearly originated from the macula. Seven patients had AMD-like atrophy in the periphery without end-stage disease in the macula. One patient with end-stage disease in the macula had normal periphery results on the color images. While analyzing the eyes, we detected pathologic appearances that were very reliably identified by graders. Conclusions Phenotyping the retinal periphery using the categories defined by the International Classification confirmed the presence of wide-ranging AMD-like pathologic changes even in those without central sight-threatening macular disease. Based on our observations, we propose here new, reliably identifiable grading categories that may be more suited for population-based UWFI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8580
Pages (from-to)1340-1347
Number of pages8
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2015

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Publisher Copyright:
Crown Copyright © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.


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